LF: load factor; LL: Loaded legs; UT: Utilization factor
GHGs occur naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere, but human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, are increasing the levels of GHGs in the atmosphere, causing global warming and climate change. The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty for controlling the release of GHGs from human activities. It is worth noting that different greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere for different lengths of time, and they also absorb different amounts of heat. The “global warming potential” (GWP) of a GHG indicates the amount of warming a gas causes over a given period (normally 100 years).
Because CO2 is considered the most important greenhouse gas, some GHG assessments or reports only include CO2 and do not consider the other greenhouse gases, and this can lead to an understatement of total global warming impact. Greenhouse gas inventories are more complete if they include all GHGs and not just CO2. “Carbon dioxide equivalent” or “CO2e” is a term for describing different greenhouse gases in a common unit. For any quantity and type of greenhouse gas, CO2e signifies the amount of CO2 which would have the equivalent global warming impact.
A quantity of GHG can be expressed as CO2e by multiplying the amount of the GHG by its GWP. E.g. if 1kg of methane is emitted, this can be expressed as 25kg of CO2e (1kg CH4 * 25 = 25kg CO2e). “CO2e” is a very useful term for a number of reasons: it allows “bundles” of greenhouse gases to be expressed as a single number; and it allows different bundles of GHGs to be easily compared (in terms of their total global warming impact). However, one word of caution when comparing CO2e totals is that it is important to know that the same GHGs are included in the totals being compared (Econometrica 2012).
EN 16258 is a methodology for the calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers). The CEN members are the national standards institutes of Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, the Czech Republic, Turkey, Hungary, the United Kingdom and Cyprus.
Why have we committed to the EN16258 standard and not another standard?
Our research incorporated an assessment of all global standards. This revealed that most so-called standards focus on regional areas (e.g. SmartWay for North America) or have been established by transportation organizations (e.g. TIACA, GLEC, CCWG, IATA etc.), are concentrated solely on one mode of transport (e.g. IATA, IMO, ICAO, CCWG etc.) or are research bodies (e.g. COFRET, STREAM etc.). EN16258 is a European standard, but it focuses on all transport modes and is neither an association, nor a research body; moreover, it is a state norm.
Primarily, EN16258 calculates the TTW (Tank-To-Wheel) and WTW (Well-to-Wheel). TTW means the direct combustion of energy for the respective mode of transport, whereas WTW includes the production, transportation and distribution of fuel, including the final combustion of energy. WTW is WTT + TTW, where WTT means “Well to Tank” (refer also to next two graphics).
EN16258 only provides for the calculation of CO2 equivalents: CarbonCare goes one step further. We calculate not only CO2 equivalents, but also the pure CO2. Many companies are very interested in effective and pure CO2 emissions.
Figure 2: EU Science Hub 2018
In addition to EN16258, we can also provide the emission figures for transhipping before, after and between any kind of transport modes (XSHIP).
For transparency, the underlying load factors are shown below.
|AIR||DISTANCES||Great circle distances plus 95km according to EN16258. RF-Index is currently set to 1.0 according to CORE Project of University of Stockholm.||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Data for different aircraft types.|
LF: 80% or cargo load factor 70%. LL:
almost 0% since only a few technical flights required positioning.
|ROAD||DISTANCES||Great circle distances for delivery tours. In the logistics industry, point to point transports are extremely seldom.||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Data for various truck types (see calculator).|
LF: 80% for trucks 7 tonnes and smaller.
LF: 75-80% for larger trucks.
|SEA||DISTANCES||Shortest routings based on our own specially developed distance calculator. Distance compared with international, well-known calculators and measured examples.||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Mainly based on CCWG (Clean Cargo Working Group) data. CCWG values corrected for one TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit) to 10.5 tonnes according to EN16258. Data for cooling available. Fleetwide utilisation factor of 74%; however, there are large differences for different routes varying between 60% and 84%. Currents are compensated for over the timeframe.|
|IWW||DISTANCES||Shortest routings based on our own specially developed distance calculator. Distance compared with international, well-known calculators.||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Own measurements supplemented with newest STREAM research data. Applied UT of 53% for ships under 2000 tonnes or 55% respectively.|
|RAIL||DISTANCES||Shortest routings based on our own specially developed distance calculator. Distance compared with international, well-known calculators. Routes split up into electrified and diesel train routes.||UNDERLYING FACTORS||CarbonCare respects the masses for different railway systems. Further, we assess the diesel or electric traction for each route. The electrical consumption (WTW only) is calculated based on IEA national GRID values.|
|XSHIP||DISTANCES||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Our own transhipment values, developed for each mode of transport. At airports, there is a 10-hour warehousing period included which respects the national GRID values. Cooling is only calculated for airport transhipping.|
|COOL||DISTANCES||UNDERLYING FACTORS||Cooling is only calculated for:
LF: load factor; LL: Loaded legs; UT: Utilization factor